The trophies and achievements for Metal Gear Solid V: The Phantom Pain have been detailed. Website XboxAchievements has the full list available, but be warned, some may be considered spoilers (mission names and such).
Looks like the game will have 42 achievements total (plus a platinum trophy for the PlayStation versions, most likely), of which 14 are secret. If you want to see the secret achievements as well, follow this link.
“You are above even The Boss. I hereby award you a Platinum Trophy.”